学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

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学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

楼层#1  帖子jasonwang2 » 2015年 3月 3日 星期二 5:50 pm

驳论也是学术论文的一种议论方法。一般来说,驳论,就是驳斥"敌论"。但这里所谓的"敌论"并非全指敌对之论,也可以指不正确、不全面、错误的或有害的观点及现象等等。因此,所谓驳论就是证明"敌论"是错误的、荒谬的。如果从深层意义上讲,驳论就是指出"敌论"内部的错误、欠缺或不合理的东西。这样的"敌论",或是在中心论点上有问题,或是在分论点上有问题,或是在论据上有毛病,或是在论据上有毛病,或是在论证上有欠缺,总之,它是一个不能令人信服的观点或证明。所以,驳论从整体而言是通过反驳来指出一个观点的不合理性、不科学性,即"证伪",这是驳论论证的本质。文章整理来自http://www.journalfirst.net

驳论既然是"证伪",那么,驳论文章的写作方法是什么呢?对驳论又有哪些特殊要求?我们拟从以下几个方面来介绍。

树立批驳的目标。犹如射箭要有"的",射击要有"靶" 一样,写驳论文章首先必须树立一个批驳的目标,俗称"摆靶子"。在进行驳论的时候,把论敌的错误观点、表现形态、所凭借的虚假事实和理由,以及在论证过程中的逻辑上的错误等等,准确、鲜明地摆出来,以利于批驳,这样的工作就是树立目标,即"摆靶子"。如这段文字:
多少年来,诸多评论家都围绕着"官逼民反"的主题来评价(水浒传),为之定下了"农民革命"的基调,就连权威的文学史教材也都附会此说。事实上,当我们细研(水浒),走近绿林,会清楚地看到:这二者之间并没有多少直接的联系, J!p 造反者所以造反,除了林冲、二解外,绝大多数都不是当时社会通过的结果,而是有着种种的原因。
如同立论文章确立论点是首要任务一样,驳论文章树立批驳目标也就构成了首要任务。因为驳论者树立的这个目标,表示了他对"敌论"的清醒的认识-一只有对"敌论"有较明晰探入的了解,才能抓住其要害,看到它的错误本质,才能以清晰而简明的语言树立起"靶子"。

那么,怎样树立目标呢?可注意三点:
(1)恰当引用,集中目标。树立"靶子",常常要引用"敌论"原话,或者是叙述其表现,描绘其形态等等,但必须注意:首先,凡引用的应是"敌论"中的关键句、关键话、关键段E 凡叙述的应是"敌论"的本质和主要表现;凡描绘的是"敌论"中的'代表性形态。忌讳四面出击,不分轻重。其次,如果"敌论"的观点表现形态分散不集中,应当进行集中概括,选择提炼,使所树的"靶子"概括而且鲜明。
我们请看鲁迅(中国人失掉自信力了吗?)中的一段话:
从公开的文字上看起来:两年以前,我们总自夸着"地大物博",是事实;不久就不再自夸了,只希望着国联,也是事实E现在是既不夸自己,也不信国联,改为一味求神拜佛,怀古伤今了一一却也是事实。
于是有人慨叹曰:中国人失掉自信力了。
鲁迅先生树立的这个"靶子"既集中又恰当,概括了当时舆论界两年来的种种言论,从而提炼出了"中国人失去自信力"这个对抗日前途悲观失望的错误论调作为目标加以批驳。

(2)揭示背景,适当铺垫。就是说,树立目标要自然得体,不能太突兀,所以要揭示背景,做适当的铺垫。一是为了让读者知道事情的来龙去脉、前因后果,知道为什么要批驳这种"敌论";二是为驳论者自己做准备,便于以后批判的展开。请看下面"靶子"的树立:"智取生辰纲"作为梁山好汉们聚义的发端,是(水浒传)作者饱矗浓墨重彩,着力渲染的-tl:重头戏……以致于几百年来播于世人之口,一段时间还选入中学教材。后来的批评者,尤其是那些持"揭竿起义说"一一农民革命论者,对此更给予了高度的赞扬。有的说这一事件反映了劳动人民与封建筑治阶级的矛盾冲突,歌颂了劳动人民的斗争胜利;有的说这是水浒英雄向封建势力发起的"主动进攻","揭开了农民斗争的序幕" 。诸如此类,给这一事件涂上了光挥耀眼的革命亮色。
但是,只要我们稍稍留心(水浒传)中作者的具体叙述和人物描写,就不难发现那种种称誉都是离开了作品的实际而先行结论,附会定义的作法,是违背实事求是原则的架空议论。
这篇文章作者所树立的"靶子"是"有的说这事件……歌颂了劳动人民的斗争胜利","是水讲英雄向封建势力发起的‘主动进攻',‘揭开了农民斗争的序幕'"。为了引出这一错误观点,论者在前面做了适当的铺垫,介绍了"智取生辰纲"这一事件在整部(水浒传)中的作用,及其在历代读者心目中的地位,概述了历代评者的评论状况。在此前提下亮出了这一负观点。于是,这种错误观点是怎样产生的,为什么要对它进行驳斥,也就清楚明白了。

(3)注意感情,爱憎分明。这是要求驳论者在树"靶子"时要把自己的感情明确地表达出来,是爱是僧,是赞成是反对,必须态度明朗,旗帜鲜明,绝对不能不偏不倚,模棱两可地树"靶子"。例如上面所举的例文中,论者在树立批驳目标的过程中,就融进了自己明朗的是非观念,指出那些说"智取生辰纲""揭开了农民革命斗争的序幕"的"农民革命论"者,是"离开了作品实际而先行结论,附会定义的作法,是违法实事求是原则的架空议论",态度非常鲜明,绝没有模棱两可之嫌。
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Re: 学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

楼层#2  帖子steveg20 » 2018年 10月 3日 星期三 6:13 pm

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Re: 学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

楼层#3  帖子steveg20 » 2018年 10月 9日 星期二 6:54 am

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Re: 学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

楼层#4  帖子steveg20 » 2018年 11月 6日 星期二 7:59 am

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Re: 学术论文之驳论的方法及要求

楼层#5  帖子steveg20 » 2019年 3月 25日 星期一 10:54 am

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